Canadian immigration law recognizes two types of visa - permanent and temporary. Permanent visa are also called immigrant visa or permanent resident visa. One can obtain permanent resident visa by applying in one of the available categories under federal or provincial programs or by being sponsored as a family member of Canadian citizen or permanent resident.
Being permanent resident of Canada means that you can live and work in Canada, leave and return as you wish, and that you are entitled to the same rights and have the same duties as other Canadian citizens or permanent residents.
As a permanent resident of Canada, you will still use your passport that you used to come to Canada. You will need to obtain visitor visa to travel to countries that require entry visa for citizens of your native country. Only after you become citizen of Canada, will you be able to apply for Canadian passport.
As a permanent resident, you are subject to immigration law and may be subject to deportation if you commit serious crime. As a citizen of Canada, you will have more rights and more protection than permanent residents.